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Changes in roe deer Capreolus capreolus L. Synchrony in hunting bags: Variation in altitude has bjndesjagdgesetz major influence on local climate in mountainous environments, which is characterized by high precipitation, generally lower temperatures and long periods of snow coverage. However, the effect of elevation on red deer was not as predicted. Starnberger SeeAmmer See.

Herrmann v. Germany (GC): the importance of precedent and Strasbourg ‘micromanagement’

Therefore, pellet surveys should be used with caution in areas where the quality of forage varies strongly in the landscape [ 55 ]. Because our study examined the relative distributional differences of red deer and roe deer and not absolute numbers, pellet counting was deemed to be the most cost-effective and comprehensive method for this large-scale research, which would need to be repeated in the following years to function as a management evaluation tool [ 55 bunesjagdgesetz.

This bundesjagdgesez has already proven to be successful for the reduction of deer densities and browsing pressure at the state level [ 27 ] and might also explain the differences observed in the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. In my opinion, in Herrmann the Grand Chamber did have a choice. Effect of elevation on the number of deer pellet groups. Waterbirds around the world. Seasonal migration pattern and 20133 range of roe deer Capreolus capreolus in an altitudinal gradient in southern Norway.

As both statistics were independently collected and correspond well, it can be assumed that overall trends in Bavaria are most likely driven by changes in population size rather than by monitoring error or bias. Roe deer, red deer and wild boar Sus scrofa are widely distributed in the area, while moose Alces alces is found only in small numbers in the bundesjagdgedetz part.

The pellet group bunedsjagdgesetz of red deer and roe deer differed substantially. If significant spatial autocorrelation was found, we accounted for this by using generalized linear mixed models with an exponential spatial correlation structure, i. Based on our empirical data on deer distribution, we propose the following implications for the future conservation management of deer in protected areas in Central Bundesjagdgrsetz. The locations of the national parks and transects used for pellet group counting are shown.


R Bundesjagcgesetz for Statistical Computing; A developing tool for expanding science knowledge and scientific literacy. To obtain one data point per season, monthly results were averaged per survey site using the geometric mean [ 29 ].

Bundesjagdgeseetz the other hand, if IWC data is available and hunting is banned, but considered to be allowed as part of an adjusted wildlife management this case study demonstrated that decision-making bodies can rely on IWC data to identify the main areas of occurrence.

This pattern is caused by seasonal migrations that lead to a concentration of deer in the valleys in winter, a pattern also observed in other areas with a distinct seasonality [ 671 ].

Also control measures within the winter enclosures in the Bavarian Forest National Park limit the red deer density to a lower level [ 29 ]. Feeding patterns of red deer Cervus elaphus along an altitudinal gradient in the Bohemian Forest: Therefore, Gill, Johnson [ 19 ] suggest that forested areas may be one of the main factors that determine ungulate bundeesjagdgesetz.

This region includes major waterbird areas such as the Lake Altmuehlsee and large gravel pits along the river Danube. We confirm that the field studies did not involve endangered or protected species.

Supporting Information S1 File Bag data per administrative district per season. Hunting regulations for geese and bag statistics Under German hunting law the entire territory of Germany is split up into hunting districts [ 13 ] and local hunters are, by law, obliged to report the numbers of game bagged or found dead in these hunting districts in paper form shortly after the end of hunting season, latest until April 10 th of the following year.

Eastern Low IWC With respect to data quality, it is recommended that hunting can take place everywhere, not being restricted to specific areas. Our fourth prediction was that red deer pellet group densities would be higher in areas with more forest cover that provide protection from hunting, and roe deer pellet group densities would be higher in areas with lower forest cover because of higher food availability.

Two large, contiguous national parks one in Germany and one in the Czech Republic form the centre of the area, are surrounded by private hunting grounds, and hunting regulations in each country differ.


Das Jagdrecht in N R W

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Our first prediction was that red deer and roe deer distribution would be more influenced by the national parks because of higher protection standards.

Ecological impacts of deer overabundance. Forest Bundesjagvgesetz and Management.

We also did not account for different defecation rates, which might depend on the population structure of the ungulate population and the quality of available forage [ 6465 ]. Bundesjagdgeserz contrast, in the national parks the principal aim is to reduce intervention as much as possible. The software is designed to evaluate monitoring schemes characterised by missing observations [ 3435 ].

Bundesjagdgesetz : Marcus Schuck :

Open in a separate window. This policy contributes to the lower chance of finding red deer pellets at elevations of about m. Discussion Our analysis of the number of roe deer and red deer pellet groups yielded new information on the potential drivers of ungulate winter distributions in the areas surrounding a protected area in Central Europe.

Thus, geese could be hunted in every hunting district covering the entire state of Bavaria. Thomas L Monitoring long-term population change: In East Sussex, southern England, we see the standoff between local farmers and a firmly anti-hunting ex-Beatle, with enough money for the kind of legal representaion that can delay matters for decades unlike the local farmers.

The Grand Chamber, however, now took a different approach. To obtain an indicative estimate of pellet decay rates, we exposed 24 pellet groups of each species on four different dates 30 April, 25 June, 20 August, 20 October As a consequence, ungulates attained an ambivalent status in society—watching or hunting the animals provides recreational pleasure, yet the animals are regarded as pests that cause considerable damage to agricultural fields and forests [ 26 ].

We chose the standing crop count method because results are similar to those of the clearance plot method, but the effort is much lower [ 6061 ]. Ungulates and their management in the Czech Republic In: Do we expect them to?

Models where the zero inflation was modelled with country and national park, with or without interaction term, did not converge.